Bulgaria, officially the Republic of Bulgaria, is a country in Southeastern Europe. It borders five countries; Romania, Serbia, the Republic of Macedonia, Greece and Turkey. It is bordered by the Black Sea to the east. Bulgaria is a member of the European Union and of NATO.

Bulgaria is comprised of the classical regions of Thrace, Moesia, and Macedonia and has a civilized history of more than 6600 years. Before Bulgaria was reestablished as a constitutional monarchy in 1878, it fell under five centuries of Ottoman rule.

Bulgaria joined losing side in both WWI and WWII. Its defeat in WWI led to territorial losses to Serbia, Greece and Romania. The defeat in World War II to the Soviet Union made Bulgaria become a communist state and part of the Eastern Bloc. It ended Communist rule at the end of 1989.