Iceland, officially the Republic of Iceland is a country in northern Europe, comprising the island of Iceland and its outlying islets in the North Atlantic Ocean between the rest of Europe and Greenland. It is the least populous of the Nordic countries and the second smallest.

The settlement of Iceland began in 874 when, Norwegian settled on the island. Over the next centuries, people of Nordic and Gaelic origin settled in Iceland. The Icelandic population was from 1262 to 1918 a part of the Norwegian and later the Danish monarchies. Iceland gained its independent on June 17, 1944.