Rhodesia and Nyasaland

The Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland, also known as Central African Federation (CAF), was a semi-independent state in southern Africa that existed from 1953 to the end of 1963, comprising the former self-governing colony of Southern Rhodesia and the British protectorates of Northern Rhodesia, and Nyasaland.

The Federation was established on August 1, 1953, with the goal of creating a middle way between the newly independent and socialist black independent states and the white-dominated governments of South Africa, Angola, and Mozambique. It was intended to be a perpetual entity, but ultimately crumbled because the black African nationalists wanted a greater share of power than the dominant minority white population was willing to concede.

The rulers of the new black African states were united in wanting to end colonialism in Africa. With most of the world moving away from colonialism during this time (late 1950s early 1960s), the United Kingdom was subjected to pressure to de-colonize from both the United Nations and the Organization of African Unity. These groups supported the aspirations of the black African nationalists and accepted their claims to speak on behalf of the people.

The federation officially ended on 31 December 1963, when Northern Rhodesia gained independence from the UK as the new nation of Zambia and Nyasaland gained independence as the new nation of Malawi. Southern Rhodesia became known as Rhodesia and is now Zimbabwe.