map of Turkeylocator map of Turkey

Turkey, known officially as the Republic of Turkey, is a Eurasian country located in Western Asia and in East Thrace in Southeastern Europe. Turkey is bordered by eight countries: Bulgaria; Greece; Georgia; Armenia, Azerbaijan (the exclave of Nakhchivan), Iran, Iraq and Syria. The Mediterranean Sea and Cyprus are to the south; the Aegean Sea is to the west; and the Black Sea is to the north. The Turkish Straits separates Europe and Asia.

Oghuz Turks began migrating into the area now called Turkey in the 11th century. The process was greatly accelerated by the Seljuk victory over the Byzantines at the Battle of Manzikert. Several small beyliks and the Seljuk Sultanate of Rūm ruled Anatolia until the Mongol invasion. Starting from the 13th century, the Ottoman beylik united Anatolia and created an empire encompassing much of Southeastern Europe, Western Asia and North Africa. After the Ottoman Empire collapsed following its defeat in World War I, parts of it were occupied by the victorious Allies. A cadre of young military officers organized a successful resistance to the Allies; in 1923, they would establish the modern Republic of Turkey.